HIV / AIDSShareThe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is transmitted through blood and body fluids and gradually breaks down the immune system – usually over a three- to ten-year period – leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. As the virus progresses, people begin to suffer from opportunistic infections. The most common opportunistic infection that leads to death is tuberculosis. A simple blood test can confirm HIV status, but many people live for years without symptoms and may not know they have been infected with HIV. Combinations of drugs known as antiretrovirals (ARVs) help combat the virus, and enable people to live longer, healthier lives without their immune systems deteriorating rapidly. ARVs also significantly reduce the likelihood of the virus being transmitted. As well as treatment, MSF’s comprehensive HIV/AIDS programmes generally include education and awareness activities, condom distribution, HIV testing, counselling and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. PMTCT involves the administration of ARV treatment to the mother during pregnancy and labour, and to the infant just after birth.