Like TCP/IP, Novell provides a suite of protocols developed specifically for NetWare. The five main protocols used by NetWare are:Media Access Protocol.Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX).Routing Information Protocol (RIP).Service Advertising Protocol (SAP).NetWare Core Protocol (NCP).Because these protocols were defined well before the finalization of the OSI reference model, they do not exactly match OSI. Figure 6.5 provides mapping of the NetWare protocols to the OSI reference model. In actuality, no direct correlation to the layer boundaries of the two architectures exists. These protocols follow an enveloping pattern. More specifically, the upper-lever protocols (NCP, SAP, and RIP) are enveloped by IPX/SPX. A Media Access Protocol header and trailer then envelop IPX/SPX.