Introduction

Open source doesn't just mean access to the source code. The
distribution terms of open-source software must comply with the
following criteria:

1. Free Redistribution

The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving
away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution
containing programs from several different sources. The license shall
not require a royalty or other fee for such sale.

Rationale:
By constraining the license to require free redistribution, we
eliminate the temptation for licensors to throw away many long-term
gains to make short-term gains. If we didn't do this, there would be
lots of pressure for cooperators to defect.


2. Source Code

The program must include source code, and must allow distribution
in source code as well as compiled form. Where some form of a product
is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized
means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable
reproduction cost preferably, downloading via the Internet without
charge. The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer
would modify the program. Deliberately obfuscated source code is not
allowed. Intermediate forms such as the output of a preprocessor or
translator are not allowed.

Rationale:
We require access to un-obfuscated source code because you can't evolve
programs without modifying them. Since our purpose is to make evolution
easy, we require that modification be made easy.


3. Derived Works

The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must
allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the
original software.

Rationale:
The mere ability to read source isn't enough to support independent
peer review and rapid evolutionary selection. For rapid evolution to
happen, people need to be able to experiment with and redistribute
modifications.


4. Integrity of The Author's Source Code

The license may restrict source-code from being distributed in modified form only
if the license allows the distribution of "patch files" with the source
code for the purpose of modifying the program at build time. The
license must explicitly permit distribution of software built from
modified source code. The license may require derived works to carry a
different name or version number from the original software.


Rationale:
Encouraging lots of improvement is a good thing, but users have a right
to know who is responsible for the software they are using. Authors and
maintainers have reciprocal right to know what they're being asked to
support and protect their reputations.

Accordingly,
an open-source license must guarantee that source be readily available,
but may require that it be distributed as pristine base sources plus
patches. In this way, "unofficial" changes can be made available but
readily distinguished from the base source.

5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups

The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons.

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Jawabanmu

2014-05-03T10:19:17+07:00

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What is open source?

The term "open source" refers to something that can be modified because its design is publicly accessible.While it originated in the context of computer software development, today the term "open source" designates a set of values—what we call the open source way. In general, open source projects, products, or initiatives are those that embrace and celebrate open exchange, collaborative participation, rapid prototyping, transparency, meritocracy, and community development.

What is open source software?
Open source software is software whose source code is available for modification or enhancement by anyone."Source code" is the part of software that most computer users don't ever see; it's the code computer programmers can use to change how a piece of software works. Programmers who have access to a computer program's source code can improve that program by adding features to it or fixing parts that don't always work correctly.What's the difference between open source software and other types of software?Some software has source code that cannot be modified by anyone but the person, team, or organization who created it and maintains exclusive control over it. This kind of software is frequently called "proprietary software" or "closed source" software, because its source code is the property of its original authors, who are the only ones legally allowed to copy or modify it. Microsoft Word and Adobe Photoshop are examples of proprietary software. In order to use proprietary software, computer users must agree (usually by signing a license displayed the first time they run this software) that they will not do anything with the software that the software's authors have not expressly permitted.Open source software is different. Its authors make its source code available to others who would like to view that code, copy it, learn from it, alter it, or share it. LibreOffice and the GNU Image Manipulation Program are examples of open source software. As they do with proprietary software, users must accept the terms of a license when they use open source software—but the legal terms of open source licenses differ dramatically from those of proprietary licenses. Open source software licenses promote collaboration and sharing because they allow others to make modifications to source code and incorporate that code into their own projects. Some open source licenses ensure that anyone who alters and then shares a program with others must also share that program's source code without charging a licensing fee for it. In other words, computer programmers can access, view, and modify open source software whenever they like—as long as they let others do the same when they share their work. In fact, they could be violating the terms of some open source licenses if they don’t do this.Open source software is also a key component of the behind-the-scenes technology that powers the Internet. Every time you use a device to view a webpage, check your email, chat with a friend, or play a multiplayer game, a network of computers around the world works to link your device to a remote computer which serves up the data your local device displays. Many of these systems run open source software, from the Linuxoperating system to a web server application such as Apache. There are also a variety of other open source tools which enable functionality for file storage, networking, and other important computing tasks.