3.The HISTORY OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION WORLDWIDE
For a long time, care and education of young children were seen as tasks of the family, especially mothers and other women. After weaning, the child was perceived as a little adult, when it reached a degree of independence, started to help adults in daily activities and learn the basics for their social integration. Did not consider the child's personal identity.
Due to the nature of family care for infants, the first names of children's institutions make a reference to this aspect, as the French term "kindergarten" means manger crib. And the Italian term "asylum nido" which means that houses a nest.
In primitive societies, children who were in difficult situations such as neglect, were cared for by a network of kinship, or within the family. In ancient times, the care provided by mothers were mercenaries, who had no kind of concern for children, and many died under his care. In the Middle Ages and modern times, there were the "wheels" (hollow cylinders of wood, rotary), built in the walls of churches or charitable hospitals where children were left gathered. Within this perspective, it is evident that in the words of Oliver:
the ideas of abandonment, poverty, guilt and love pervade so precarious that care for children during this period and will permeate certain ideas about what is an institution that takes care of early childhood education, stressing the negative side of care outside the family ( OLIVEIRA, 2002: 59).
Given this situation, are clear roots of the devaluation of professional Early Childhood Education, which needs to change this stereotype, that for working with children is not necessary qualification, for most professionals working in this area is for laymen, which demonstrates that even with such progress as regards the concept of a child, there remains a kind of care that applies only to physical care, ignoring global aspects in the care of children.
In Europe the Industrial Revolution, the agrarian and mercantile society becomes urban-manufacturing, in a situation of conflict where children were victims of poverty, neglect and abuse, with high mortality rate. Gradually the children's work becomes more formal response to this situation were emerging institutions for the care of disadvantaged children or children whose parents worked in factories (OLIVEIRA, 2002).
In the eighteenth and nineteenth originates from two types of assistance to small children, a good quality for the children of the elite, which had the characteristic of education, and another that served as the custody and discipline for children from disadvantaged classes.
Within this scenario raises the discussion of how to educate children. Thinkers such as Comenius, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Decroly, Froebel and Montessori configure the new bases for the education of children. Although they had different focuses, they recognized that children had characteristics different from adults, with its own needs (OLIVEIRA, 2002).
In the twentieth century, after the first World War, the idea grows respect for children, culminating in the New Schools Movement, strengthening important precepts such as the need to provide a school that respects the child as a being specific, so this should direct their work to match the characteristics of child thought.
In psychology, in the '20s and '30s, Vygotsky supports the idea that the child is introduced to the world of culture by more experienced partners. Wallon out affection as a determining factor in the learning process. Research arise from Piaget, who revolutionized the vision of how children learn, the theory of stages of development. Pedagogical theories were gradually apropos of psychological concepts, especially in early childhood education, stimulating its growth.
In the context of post-second world war, there is a preoccupation with the social situation of children and the idea of children as holders of rights. The UN promulgated in 1959, the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, as a result of the Declaration of Human Rights, this is an important factor in the conception of childhood that permeates the contemporary, children as subjects of rights.