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Albert Einstein (/ ˈ ælb ərt ˈaɪn s taɪn/ ; German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] ( ); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist . He developed the general theory of relativity , one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics). [2] [3] He is best known for his mass– energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation"). [4] He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". [5] The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory. Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity . He realized, however, that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on the general theory of relativity. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules . He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the large- scale structure of the universe. [6] He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences . He settled in the U.S., becoming an American citizen in 1940. [7] On the eve of World War II, he endorsed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt alerting him to the potential development of "extremely powerful bombs of a new type" and recommending that the U.S. begin similar research. This eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project . Einstein supported defending the Allied forces, but largely denounced the idea of using the newly discovered nuclear fission as a weapon. Later, with the British philosopher Bertrand Russell, Einstein signed the Russell– Einstein Manifesto , which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. Einstein was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955. Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works. [6][8] His great intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with genius . [9] pilih jawaban terbaik ya!
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Mahatma Gandhi was not only a popular figure and hero of India , but also a world figure who made ​​a large contribution to the struggle for human rights and anti- violence fighters . Gandhi appearance is very simple but profound impact of thought and struggle for Indian independence fighters and inspire non-violence in various parts of the world . Behind the white cloth , fragile body was stored exceptional strength and charisma . Many times he went to prison , Gandhi continued to fight even leading his people peacefully achieve independence India .

Mohandas Gandhi 's full name Karachmad Gandhi , was born in Porbandar India October 2, 1869 and died January 30, 1948 . Gandhi is a graduate of the Faculty of Law of the University College London and one of the few Indians who are lucky to have higher education abroad . After becoming a law degree , Gandhi returned to India and opened a practice as pengacaradi Bombay , but with less success . He then went to Durban South Africa to work in the law firm of India . Here he observes pendindasan whites against Indians in Af - Sel. He then began to plunge fight for civil rights equality regardless of race and color to many times in jail and physical attacks by people of European descent in South Africa . He launched a passive resistance and non- cooperative . During the Boer War , Gandhi led an ambulance corps for the British army and Red Cross units . Gandhi returned to India after the demands of the British government granted the citizens of India .

In India , Gandhi's struggle for autonomy against the British occupation of India by applying the concept of Satyagraha ( truth and firmness ) . In 1920 Gandhi led a non cooperative resistance . All the people of India in various government offices simultaneously resigned , government offices in the boycott and the kids out of government schools English . Across the streets filled with people who squat and do not want to wake up even beaten by the police . Gandhi later in the hold , but eventually released due to popular demand is the greater . Gandhi considers the exploitation and colonization by the British is the root of all the poverty , squalor and misery of the people of India . To alleviate poverty , Gandhi adhered to the economy, a cottage industry , and rural economic development . He started using a spinning wheel as a symbol of the return of the simple village life and start a genuine industry of India . Total boycott against British goods - even in large - scale done .

Gandhi's life is very simple , devout worship , fasting and meditation . He considered Mahatma ( great soul ) by the people of India . The technique is really difficult struggle the British authorities in India . But the uprising in India still take place so that he admitted failing to stop violent resistance and consequently he was arrested again in 1922. Aside from prison in 1924 , he pioneered the people not to pay taxes and leading mass demonstrations . As a result, he returned to prison . Gandhi then hunger strike to pressure the British government . The government is very worried because if he dies , there will be a revolution in India .

When World War II broke out , the Congress Party and Gandhi did not support Britain unless India was given full independence . India 's independence was finally agreed terms with a bunch of two nationalist groups , Muslim groups and the Congress could resolve their differences . Gandhi initially rejected the separation of India , but finally agreed that peace is possible . Muslim groups were then given independence with the establishment of the state of Pakistan that since 1947 , Pakistan and India became a separate state .

Partition of India - Pakistan protests and culminated in the riots . Gandhi continued to urge Hindus and Muslims to live in harmony and peace . When the riots hit Calcutta , he was running fast until the violence stopped . Likewise, when the riots New Delhi , he was fasting for peace . Dated January 30, 1948 , when he would pray , a Hindu fanatic Nathuram Godse - kill - .

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